RAL colours refer to the standardised colour tones defined by the RAL Institute under the name 'RAL Classic'. RAL Classic assigns a four-digit colour code to every colour tone in a colour row. The norms date back to a colour chart name RAL 840 with 40 colour tones, which was created in 1927 by the German State Commission for Delivery Terms and Quality Assurance (Reichsausschuss für Lieferbedingungen und Gütesicherung - RAL). The advantage of standardising the colours was that customers and suppliers no longer had to exchange samples on a defined material to describe a tone, but could simply state the RAL colour code.
The four-digit RAL colour codes that are still used today were introduced around 1940.
The colours are rendered as:
- RAL 840-HR with matte surfaces
- RAL 841-GL with glossy surfaces
RAL colours are not used very often when manufacturing promotional products, giveaways and advertising media, where the Pantone Matching System has established itself as the global industry standard.
In order to print on textiles or textile promotional products using the discharge process, one must first colour the fabrics using reactive dyes. The reactive dyes are absorbed or form chemical bonds with the fibres. The addition of the print logo occurs by applying heat and with alkaline solutions.
The correct alignment of the printing plates in multi-colour printing is referred to as being in register. This is why there are register marks (cross-hair marks) on the colour separations (films, proofs).
Register marks are also required for each colour separation when printing multi-colour logos in the production of promotional products, giveaways and advertising media.
A Registered Design is an intellectual property right that grants the owner the exclusive right to use an aesthetic design and its characteristics (design, colour and form).
Aesthetic designs are excluded from patent and utility model protections; however they can be protected against copying and imitation by registering them as registered designs at the patent office. The registered design protects both the two and three-dimensional appearance of the design, be it as a whole or in part.
Relief embossing (or dry embossing) and relief printing can be used to achieve bas-relief effects on promotional products, giveaways and advertising media as follows:
1. Slogans, signets, etc. are embossed or printed on card or paper;
2. Motifs (usually images) are turned into three-dimensional advertising materials (displays, posters, etc.).
Ribbed fabrics are highly elastic and often used at the cuffs of textile promotional products such as sweatshirts. Ribbed fabrics feature one or more plain stitches (left to right), followed by the same or a different number of purl stitches (right to left), so as to create a vertically ribbed structure. Ribbed fabrics are particularly elastic.
Ribbing or rib knit is a knit with high elasticity but lower material density than interlock. It is excellently suited to affordable, tight-fitting shirts and textile promotional products and advertising media. 1x1 rib is the most common variant and features one plain stitch (left to right), followed by one purl stitch (right to left), followed by one knit stitch, and so on. 2x2 rib consequently features two plain stitches followed by two purl stitches, etc.
Ribbing is elastic and therefore frequently used at the cuffs, waists and necklines of textile promotional products and advertising media.
Ring-spun cotton yarns are very high-quality yarns that can only be made from certain fibre qualities and lengths, which in turn result in high yarn counts.
The first step consists of a combing process in which the individual cotton fibres are combed until they are arranged parallel and formed into a roving. This is then twisted continuously, spinning it into a fine yarn. The twisting occurs using a runner spinning around the spindle on a ring.
The EU Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment 2002/95/EC (commonly referred to as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive or RoHS).
It was adopted by the EU in February 2003 (with effect from 1 July 2006), and is required to be enforced and become law in each member state. The directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment.
Rotary printing involves printing on continuous rolls of paper using round printing plates and cylinders. Almost all printing processes that can be used for mass printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing) are suited to rotary printing.